Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Math help from the Learning Centre

This guide provides useful resources for a wide variety of math topics. It is targeted at students enrolled in a math course or any other Centennial course that requires math knowledge and skills.

2-D Shapes


quadrilateral is a closed 2-D figure with four straight sides ("quad" means four and "lateral" means side).

Some properties of quadrilaterals have are:

  • Four sides (edges)
  • Four vertices (corners)
  • Interior angles that add to \(360^{\circ}\)

There are a few special quadrilaterals with specific names based on their properties:

  • Rectangle
  • Square
  • Parallelogram
  • Rhombus
  • Trapezoid
Quadrilateral - Wikipedia


Tip: Based on their properties, all rectangles, squares, and rhombuses are parallelograms, but not all parallelograms are rectangles/squares/rhombuses! Similar idea occurs with rectangles and squares - all squares are rectangles, but not all rectangles are squares.


When the base and height of a triangle are given, the area is calculated as:

\(Area=\frac{1}{2} \times base \times height\)



When all the side lengths of the triangle are given, the area is calculated using Heron's Formula:


where \(s=\frac{1}{2}(a+b+c)\)



Arc Any connected part between two points on a circle.
Chord A line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle (divides a circle into two segments).
Radius The straight-line segment that connects a centre of the circle to a point on a circle.
Sector A figure formed by two radii and an arc (determined by the endpoints of the radii).
Segment A figure formed by an arc and chord joining the endpoints of the arc.




3-D Figures

Vertex (Vertices) A point where two or more line segments meet (i.e. a corner). 
Edge (Edges) A line segment joining one vertex/corner to another or a line segment where two faces meet.
Face (Faces) Any individual flat surface of a 3D figure.
Surface Area Total area of the surfaces of a 3D figure.
Lateral Area Surface area of a 3D figure, excluding its base and top (when they exist).
Volume The amount of 3D space that is occupied/taken up by a 3D figure.




    Example 1





chat loading...