This guide provides useful resources for a wide variety of math topics. It is targeted at students enrolled in a math course or any other Centennial course that requires math knowledge and skills.

- Welcome
- Learning Math Strategies (Online)Toggle Dropdown
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- Simply Math
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- Place Value in Decimal Number Systems
- Arithmetic Operations
- Basic Laws
- Operations on Signed numbers
- Order of Operations
- Fractions
- Decimals
- Percents
- Ratios and Proportions
- Exponents
- Statistics
- Factoring
- Rearranging Formulas
- Solving Linear Equations
- Solving Systems of Linear Equations
- Trade and Cash Discounts
- Multiple Rates of Discount
- Payment Terms and Cash Discounts
- Markup
- Simple Interest
- Compound Interest
- Nominal and Effective Interest Rates
- Ordinary Simple Annuities
- Ordinary General Annuities

- Hospitality Math
- Place Value in Decimal Number Systems
- Arithmetic Operations
- Order of Operations
- Basic Laws
- Prime Factorisation and Least Common Multiple
- Fractions
- Decimals
- Percents
- Exponents
- Units of Measures
- Fluid Ounces and Ounces
- Metric Measures
- Yield Percent
- Recipe Size Conversion
- Ingredient Ratios
- Food-Service Industry Costs

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- Basic Laws
- Order of Operations
- Prime Factorisation and Least Common Multiple
- Fractions
- Exponents
- Radicals
- Reducing Radicals
- Factoring
- Rearranging Formulas
- Solving Linear Equations
- Areas and Volumes of Figures
- Congruence and Similarity
- Functions
- Domain and Range of Functions
- Basics of Graphing
- Transformations
- Graphing Linear Functions
- Graphing Quadratic Functions
- Solving Systems of Linear Equations
- Solving Quadratic Equations
- Solving Higher Degree Equations
- Trigonometry
- Graphing Trigonometric Functions
- Graphing Circles and Ellipses
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Complex Numbers
- Number Bases in Computer Arithmetic
- Linear Algebra
- Calculus
- Set Theory
- Modular Numbers and Cryptography
- Statistics
- Problem Solving Strategies

- Upgrading / Pre-HealthToggle Dropdown
- Basic Laws
- Place Value in Decimal Number Systems
- Decimals
- Significant Digits
- Prime Factorisation and Least Common Multiple
- Fractions
- Percents
- Ratios and Proportions
- Exponents
- Radicals
- Reducing Radicals
- Metric Conversions
- Factoring
- Solving Linear Equations
- Solving Quadratic Equations
- Functions
- Domain and Range of Functions
- Polynomial Long Division
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Statistics

- Nursing MathToggle Dropdown
- Arithmetic Operations
- Order of Operations
- Place Value in Decimal Number Systems
- Decimals
- Fractions
- Percents
- Ratios and Proportions
- Nutrition Labels
- Interpreting Drug Orders
- Oral Dosages
- Dosage Based on Size of the Patient
- Parenteral Dosages
- Intravenous (IV) Administration
- Infusion Rates for Intravenous Piggyback (IVPB) Bag
- General Dosage Rounding Rules

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__As Purchased Quantity (APQ):__

The weight, volume or count of non-fabricated fruit or vegetable.

**Edible Portion Quantity (EPQ):**

The weight, volume or count of fabricated fruit or vegetable.

**What are APQ and EPQ relevant with portion costing?**

It's important to know how much food is usable and the waste factor so that the correct amount is ordered and used in the menu.

__Trim:__

The weight or volume of the waste. APQ - EPQ = Trim

__Yield Percent (Y%):__

The percent of APQ that is EPQ (edible).

The Yield Percent Triangle can be used to solve for the yield. In the triangle, EPQ represents **part amount of the whole/total**, APQ represents the **whole or total amount**, and Yield (Y%) is the **percent** of the fraction created by EPQ and APQ. This creates the following formulas:

**Finding the Yield Percent:**

\[Y\%=\frac{EPQ}{APQ}\]

**Solving for the EPQ:**

\[EPQ = Y\%\times APQ \]

**Solving for the APQ:**

\[APQ = \frac{EPQ}{Y\%}\]

Note: The Y% has to be converted into decimal form when entering the formulas. You can look up Yield % of certain products in your textbook.

`Example 1`

You purchase 6 bunches of scallions. Each bunch weighs 6 ounces. The trim loss percent is 18%. After cleaning the scallions you have 29.52 ounces of cleaned scallions. What is the yield percent for scallions?

`Solution`

First we have to identify the relevant information to solve the question. To find the yield percent, we need to identify the EPQ and APQ.

The APQ is identified with **6 bunches of scallions, each bunch weighs 6 ounces**. Thus, \(APQ = 36\, oz.\)

While cleaning, you trim the weight of the scallions by 18%. You can use this percent to calculate the EPQ, but it is also given in the question, \(EPQ = 29.52\, oz.\)

We can use the values \(APQ = 36\, oz.\) and \(EPQ = 29.52\, oz.\) in the formula:

\begin{align}Y\% &=\frac{EPQ}{APQ} \\ Y\%&=\frac{29.52\, oz.}{36\, oz.}\times 100\% \\ Y\% &= 82\% \end{align}

`Example 2`

You are preparing mashed potatoes for 200 guests. Each guest will receive 5 ounces of cleaned red potatoes (mashed) with an 80% yield. How many pounds of potatoes do you need to purchase?

`Solution`

We are finding the pounds we need to purchase, this is equivalent to finding the APQ. Therefore, we need the Yield (Y%) and EPQ from the question.

The EPQ is found with **5 ounces of potatoes for 200 guests**. Therefore, \(EPQ=5\, oz. \times 200=1000\, oz.\).

The Y% is given as **80% yield**. To convert to decimals, we divide by 100, so \(80\%=0.8\).

Now we apply put the values into the formula to solve APQ:

\begin{align}APQ &=\frac{EPQ}{Y\%} \\ APQ&=\frac{1000\, oz.}{0.8}\times 100\% \\ APQ &= 1250\, oz. \end{align}

This means we need to purchase **1250 oz. **to prepare 5 ounces of mashed potatoes for 200 guests at 80% yield.

The Butcher's Yield percent is for meat and poultry products. The difference is the trim from the products can be used to create other items. For example, leftover fat from meat can be used in other dishes and bones for stock. For fruits and vegetables, the trim is often discarded.

**Calculations for yield percent for meat and poultry products:**

\[Butcher's\, Yield\, Percent=\frac{New\, Fabricated\, Weight}{APQ} \times 100\%\]

APQ is the weight of the meat or poultry as it is received from the supplier.

\[New\, Fabricated\, Weight=APQ-Total\, Trim\, Weight=APQ-(fat+bones+useable\, trim)\]

\[Butcher's\, Yield\, Percent=\frac{APQ-(fat+bones+useable\, trim)}{APQ}\times 100\%\]

`Example`

Bone-in ribs are used for making servings of boneless Prime rib. The bone-in rib weighs a total of 30 pounds. The fat from the rib weighs 8.1 pounds, the bones weigh 5.24 pounds, and the usable trim weighs 2.9 pounds. What is the butcher's yield percent for this bone-in rib?

`Solution`

We need to find the New Fabricated Weight. The APQ = 30 lbs, \(fat+bones+useable\, trim=7.1lbs+4.24lbs+2.7lbs=14.04lbs\).

\begin{align}Butcher's\, Yield\, Percent&=\frac{APQ-(fat+bones+useable\, trim)}{APQ}\times 100\% \\&=\frac{30lbs-14.04lbs}{30lbs}\times 100\% \\&= 53.2\% \end{align}

Designed by Matthew Cheung. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

- Last Updated: Sep 22, 2023 2:04 PM
- URL: https://libraryguides.centennialcollege.ca/mathhelp
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