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APA Style

Your guide to citing and referencing in APA Style (7th edition)

No Author

When no author is provided, use the title of the source in place of the author's name in the references list. Follow APA rules for capitalization and formatting, depending on the type of source. List the entry alphabetically by the first word in the title:

Reference

Title. (Year, Month Day if available). Website name. Hyperlinked URL

Economic downturn for 2020. (2020, May 1). Macleans. http://macleans.ca/economy

In-text Citation

("Title", Year).

(“Economic downturn for 2020”, 2020).

Anonymous

If the author is listed as Anonymous, use Anonymous where you would normally place the author.

Follow APA rules for capitalization and formatting, depending on the type of source. Below is an example of an Anonymous article from a newspaper.

Reference

Anonymous. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Source. Hyperlinked URL

Anonymous. (2019, January 2). Happy new year! Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/newyear2019

In-text Citation

(Anonymous, Year).

(Anonymous, 2019).

No Title

When no title is available, write a description of the item and place it in square brackets. Put this information where you would normally put the title.

Reference

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). [Description of work in square brackets]. Website Name. Hyperlinked URL

Jones, B. D., Smith, R. J., & Robertson, V. (n.d.). [Description of childhood trauma]. Childhood Trauma Information. http://childhood-trauma-information.org/define.htm

In-text Citation

(Author Last Name, Year).

(Jones et al., n.d., para. 6).

No Page Numbers

If no page number is available (as is the case with websites), include the paragraph number.

(Gupta, 2019, para. 2).


If there are many paragraphs that are too difficult to count, add a section/heading (if available).

(Gupta, 2019, Present Day Canada section, para. 5).

 

No Date

When no publication date is available, enter the abbreviation n.d. in place of the publication date.

Reference

Jones, B. D., Smith, R. J., & Robertson, V. (n.d.). Defining traumatic experience in childhood. Childhood Trauma Information. http://childhood-trauma-information.org/define.htm

In-text Citation

(Author Last Name, n.d.).

(Jones et al., n.d., para. 6).
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