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APA Style

Your guide to citing and referencing in APA Style (7th edition)

Personal Communication

Class notes, interviews, telephone conversations and emails are all personal communication:

  • Unpublished
  • Not publicly available for retrieval

Citing Personal Communication

Only include an in-text citation in the body of your assignment.

Do not include an entry in the References.

Personal Communication with Indigenous Persons

Oral traditions and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples are now treated as a distinct source category. When citing information you learned from a lecture, interview or conversation with an Indigenous person, provide more information in your in-text citation.

Make sure to reproduce the information with permission.

In-Text Citation

 (First initial, Last name, Name of Indigenous Nation, lives in City, State/Province, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

(A. Adam, Athabasca Fort Chipewyan First Nation, lives in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, personal communication, April 27, 2020).

Your Own Class Notes

Class notes are considered personal communication and appear only as in-text citations, not in the References.

In-text Citation

(Instructor initials. Instructor lastname, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

(A. Smith, personal communication, October 19, 2016).

Lecture Slides Posted on eCentennial

Reference

Instructor's lastname, Initials. (Year). Title of presentation in italics: Capitalize first word in title and subtitle [PowerPoint presentation]. eCentennial. Login page for eCentennial.

Jones, J. R. (2010). Taking a patient's health history: Interview skills for nurses [PowerPoint slides]. eCentennial. https://e.centennialcollege.ca/

In-text Citation

(Instructor's lastname, Year, Slide #).

(Jones, 2010, Slide 6).

Handout Posted on eCentennial

Reference

Instructor's Lastname, Initials. (Year). Title of handout in italics: Capitalize first word in title and subtitle [Class handout]. eCentennial. Login page for eCentennial.

Jones, J. R. (2010). Health history template [Class handout]. eCentennial. https://e.centennialcollege.ca/

In-text Citation

(Lastname, Year, p. #).

(Jones, 2010, p. 2).

Handout Distributed in Class

Reference

Instructor's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of handout in italics: Capitalize first word in title and subtitle [Class handout]. Name of School, Centennial College.

Jones, J. R. (2010). Health history template [Class handout]. School of Advancement, Centennial College.

(Lastname, Year, p. #).

(Jones, 2010, p. 2).

Article from a Custom Course Pack

Treat custom course packs as edited books. You are citing and referencing an article or chapter in the course pack. As the articles and chapters in custom course packs have been previously published, include the original publication date.

Reference

Author of the article or chapter lastname, Initials. (Year course pack published). Title of article or chapter. In Initials. Lastname of course pack editors or complilers (Comps.), Title of custom course pack in italics: Capitalize first word in title and subtitle (Custom ed. for Centennial College, pp. start page-end page). Publisher of the course pack. (Originally published in year)

Ignatieff, M. (2015). Deficits. In F. Gavin, E. Donville, D. Vavrusa, & D. Buchanan (Comps.), Effective reading and writing for COMM 170 and beyond (4th Custom ed. for Centennial College, pp. 213-217). Pearson Learning Solutions. (Originally published in 1993)

In-Text Citation

(Author of the article lastname, Original publication year/Year coursepack was published, p. #).

(Ignatieff, 1993/2015, p. 220).

 

eReserves Reading

Follow the examples for how to cite your source (book, article, video, etc.), and end the citation with the publisher (eCentennial) and the login page for eCentennial. Below is an example of how to cite a newspaper article in eReserves.

Reference

Author's lastname, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of publication. eCentennial. Login page for eCentennial.

Dewey, C. (2014, November 12). The (one) simple thing fueling your social media addition. The Washington Post. eCentennial. https://e.centennialcollege.ca/

In-Text Citation

(Lastname, Year, para. #).

(Dewey, 2014, para. 2).
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