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APA: mini-workshops, exercises, examples, and more!

Hyperlinks are not your Reference list!



If this is your idea of a Reference list, we need to chat!

What can be more precise than a web address?  It seems logical to craft the list of references simply by adding urls, in alphabetical order.  Unfortunately, this approach comes into conflict with Clarity and Honesty, our two principles of writing well in college.

Clarity: From the reference list above, we can only identify some of the sources of information, such as The Globe and MailReader's Digest and a Harvard Health blog. We are left to guess at the others.  What is and what is, for example?  Workplace stress, the subject of this assignment, is a dynamic field.  Unfortunately, the references as provided, give no indication as to how current the information is. Finally, if the web addresses change over time, it will be difficult to find the sources.

Honesty: Bill Howatt, chief of research workforce productivity for the Conference Board of Canada, and Dr. Luana Marques, Associate Professor in Psychology at Harvard Medical School, among others, deserve mention, as does the Mood Disorders Society of Canada and the World Health Organization, as your workplace stress research partners!


To help things along, I have completed the construction process by drawing the various reference list elements from the individual webpages, in consultation with the examples on the Warming Up page.  The results are displayed below.



Howatt, B. (2018, July 5). Workplace stress a main cause of mental health issues, study finds. The Globe and



LeBlanc, N. J. & Marques, L. (2019, April 17). How to handle stress at work. Harvard Health Blog.


Mood Disorders Society of Canada. (2020) Section 5 - Workplace stress.

Rideout, S. Understanding workplace stress. Reader's Digest.

The American Institute of Stress. (2018) The college student's guide to stress management.


World Health Organization. (2020) Stress at the workplace: Some simple questions and answers

Notes on using Word's citation feature

When a machine can do the work for you... why not?

Why not? (hint: this is a real question)

1. At this time, (Spring 2020) Word does not support APA's seventh edition.

2. Frequent use of the machine does not support student APA learning.

3. Selecting the appropriate information source category in Word is not always clear, and Word sometimes produces an incorrect list entry.


I could go on, but I think you get the picture.

Class Exercise

This exercise has the following aim:

1. Because the Internet as information source figures prominently in student work, this exercise with allow students to develop proficiency in transforming urls into APA reference list entries.


Instructions for Exercise Sheet 1

1. Transform the Exercise Sheet 1 list of references into the correct format.

2. If needed, use the Warming Up page for reference list examples.


Exercise Sheet 1



Refresher! (Courtesy of the Warming Up page)


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date Information). Title of work: Subtitle of work. Site Name. URL

International Center for Academic Integrity. (2020). Top 10 ways to improve academic integrity without (much)


(Author, Year, identifying place in work)

(International Center for Academic Integrity, 2020, Celebrate Integrity, para. 3)


Additional Notes

*"When the author name and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element." (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 350)

**"When periodical information (e.g., volume number, issue number, page range) is missing, omit it from the reference." (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 316)

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