The following are graphs of the basic logarithmic function, \(f(x)=b^x, \\ b>0, \\ b\ne 1\):
\(f(x)=b^x\) where \(0<b<1\)

\(f(x)=b^x\) where \(b>1\) 
Characteristics of the Exponential Function
Using the graphs, we can identify some characteristics of the basic exponential function \(f(x)=b^x, \ b>0, b\ne 1\), including:
Tip: If you recall the characteristics of the basic exponential function (\(f(x)=log_b(x)\)) graph (which can be found here), you'll see that the the basic exponential and logarithmic functions are very similar, and are, in fact, related. This is because both functions are inverses of each other, so their characteristics are also the inverse of each other. So, if you can recall the characteristics of one function, you can then use the fact that they're inverse functions to recall the other functions' characteristics. Specifically, characteristics associated with the \(x\) and \(y\) variables are switched. The related characteristics are summarized in the following tables: 
Given the graph of the parent function \(f(x)=b^x\), we are able to graph any logarithmic function of the form:
\(f(x)=ab^{k(xd)}+c\), for any \(a,k,c,d\in \mathbb{R}\)
by applying transformations to the parent graph. Each of the four parameters, \(a,b,c,d\) correspond to certain transformations, as summarized in the following table:
Function Notation/Parameter  Corresponding Transformation(s)  Coordinate Point Transformation 
\(f(x)=\)\(\ a\)\(b^{k(xd)}+c\) 
Vertical stretch/compression & reflection

\((x,y) \rightarrow\) \((x,\)\(\ a\)\(y)\) 
\(f(x)=ab\)\(^k\)\(^{(xd)}+c\) 
Horizontal stretch/compression & reflection

\((x,y) \rightarrow(\)\(\frac{1}{k}\)\(x,y)\) 
\(f(x)=ab^{k(x}\)\(^d\)\(^)+c\) 
Horizontal shift/translation left or right by \(d\) units

\((x,y) \rightarrow\)\(\ (x\)\(+ d\)\(,y)\) 
\(f(x)=ab^{k(xd)}+\)\(\ c\) 
Vertical shift/translation up or down by \(c\) units

\((x,y) \rightarrow\) \((x,y\)\(+ c\)\()\) 
Tip: To help remember what parameters correspond to which transformations, note that parameters "outside" of the function \(f(x)=b^x\) (i.e. \(a, c\)) transform the \(y\) or vertical value, while the ones "inside" the function (i.e. \(k, d\)) transform the \(x\) or horizontal value.
Notes:
Try this interactive tool.
Adjust the sliders for \(a\), \(b\), \(c\), \(d\), and \(k\). Observe what happens to the exponential function.
a) Graphing the parent function, then applying transformations.  b) Plotting any key points and drawing the asymptote. 
Solutions:
a) Graphing the parent function, then applying transformations.
1. In this case, the parent function is \(f(x)=3^x\), which has a horizontal asymptote of \(y=0\). So we first sketch this function: *Sketch this graph by creating a table values then plotting the points, or by finding the yintercept, horizontal asymptote and another point on the graph, then sketching the function. 
2. Identifying the transformation parameters, we see that we have \(a=2\), so we have a vertical stretch by a factor of 2: 
3. Next, we have \(d=1\), so we have a horizontal shift to the right by 1 unit: 
4. Finally, we have \(c=2\), so we have a vertical shift down by 2 units. This also shifts our original horizontal asymptote down to \(y=2\):

*Note: It is also possible to graph this function by transforming each individual point from the parent function or by applying all the transformations graphically at the same time (instead of onebyone like we did above).
We compare the graphs of the two functions, \(f(x)=3^x\) and \(f(x)=2(3^{x1}2\), and summarize their characteristics in the following table:
\(f(x)=3^x\)  \(f(x)=2(3^{x1})2\) 
Domain: \(D:\{x\in\mathbb{R}\}\) Range: \(R:\{y\in\mathbb{R} \  \ y>0\}\) Horizontal asymptote: \(y=0\) \(x\)intercept: None \(y\)intercept: \((0,1)\) 
Domain: \(D:\{x\in\mathbb{R}\}\) Range: \(R:\{y\in\mathbb{R} \  \ y>2\}\) Horizontal asymptote: \(y=2\) \(x\)intercept: \((1,0)\) \(y\)intercept: \((0,\frac{4}{3})\) 
b) Plotting any key points and drawing the asymptote:
1. The function \(f(x)=2(3^{x1})2\) has:
We can plot and draw these characteristics on the Cartesian plane first: 
2. After plotting/drawing these characteristics, we can draw a smooth curve through the points and approaching the asymptote, in order to finish sketching the function: 
Solution:
Watch this video for the solution!