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Statistics

Describing Data

Describing data is an important skill. Data visualization allows readers to get a concept of the data from a single display. To describe qualitative data we can break data down into categories called classes.

class is one of the categories into which qualitative data can be classified.
The class frequency is the number of observations in the data set that fall into a particular class.

The class relative frequency is the class frequency divided by the total number of observations in the data set; that is, 

\[class\,relatve\,frequency\,=\frac{class\,frequency}{n}\]

The class percentage is the class relative frequency multiplied by 100; that is, 

\[class\,percentage\,= (class\,relative\,frequency) \times 100\]

With the above calculations you can display the data in a bar graph or pie chart.

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