Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Indigenous Knowledges

A guide to resources for Indigenous Knowledges

Citing Indigenous Knowledge Keepers

APA 7th edition

Currently, the APA Manual, 7th edition, does not have a format to acknowledge personal communication with Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers as a reference. We are following the template created by Lorisia MacLeod and NorQuest College Indigenous Student Centre staff.

The following example should only be used for oral communications with Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. For any other written forms of communication, please follow the examples for resource you are citing (book, website, etc.)

Make sure to reproduce the information with permission.

References

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Personal communication. Month Date, Year.

Adam, A., Athabasca Fort Chipewyan First Nation. Treaty 8. Lives in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. Oral teaching. Personal communication. April 27, 2020.

In-Text Citation

 (Last Name of Indigenous Elder/Knowledge Keeper, Year).

(Adam, 2020).

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

MLA 8th edition

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the Works Cited. In-text citation format can be found under the In-text Citations tab

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

For example:

Cardinal, Delores. Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

Elements of Indigenous Style

chat loading...