Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Indigenous Studies

A resource guide for Indigenous Studies: First Peoples in Canada Specialized Academic Certificate and beyond

Citing Indigenous Knowledge Keepers

APA 7th edition

Oral traditions and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples are now treated as a distinct source category. When citing information you learned from a lecture, interview or conversation with an Indigenous person, provide more information in your in-text citation.

As it is Personal Communication, no References entry is necessary.

In-Text Citation

(First initial, Last name, Name of Indigenous Nation, lives in City, State/Province, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Example

(A. Adam, Athabasca Fort Chipewyan First Nation, lives in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, personal communication, April 27, 2020).

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

MLA 8th edition

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the Works Cited. In-text citation format can be found under the In-text Citations tab

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

For example:

Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004. 

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

chat loading...